In recent years, many countries around the world particularly ASEAN countries and Japan have been developing the concerns towards environmental problems such as “frequent natural disasters”, “urban environmental problems”, “environmental disruption and pollution caused by overexploitation of natural resources” and “health problems derived from environmental problems and food safety as well as the ill-responsive regional health care due to these problems” along with their economic growth. We have been living under the same umbrella of the consequences of global warming, and varieties of environmental problems for the past years since the industrial revolution. And these raised the awareness on “sustainable use of resources”, “environmental problems which cross the borders” “safety and security of global food and health” of developed countries, and the importance of endeavor for bordercrossing common problems have been acknowledged.
In the past, the series of research exchanges between Ehime University and some of the universities from ASEAN countries have been conducted and the research results have been published in prominent international journals and received the high evaluations by domestically and internationally, but many of the research projects were monodisciplinary or multidisciplinary, the presentation of the path to social problem solving and its implementation have not been made. The thing is these problems involve complicated social factors such as often conflicting interests among Stakeholders (SH), and it is not easy to make a comprehensive solution by only conducting research in limited fields. In Japan, the subdivision of “academic” and “knowledge” has been emphasized until present which makes it difficult to propose the comprehensive solutions to complicated problems of developing countries. Developed countries such as Europe and the United States have pioneered transdisciplinary research (TDR) in order to solve the problems of these developing countries, but at present, the sufficient research results have not been yielded until now. At this moment, the demand of the universities in Japan are internationalization, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary, and building a new relationship with Asian universities which had been a long-term perceptive from the latter half of 21st century. In other words, it is about how Japanese universities can provide an assistance to Asian countries, how Japanese universities and research institutions will cooperate in responding to the willingness for innovation of science and education in Asian countries and furthermore, how to solve the particular problems with Asian universities and other research institutions by practicing TDR. In order to solve this, the research and practice of transdisciplinary (TDR), stakeholders’ interests and their participations, and building a TDR network of stakeholders and researchers are necessary.
Ehime University became the hub of dispatching the information related to research and cooperation and construct the ASEAN – Japan transdisciplinary network for transdisciplinary research and practice for reducing environmental problems by utilizing the past advanced research results that lead to solving environmental problems and related problems.
Therefore, three Japanese universities: Ehime, Kagawa and Kochi universities and the researchers and scientists from the universities of ASEAN countries: Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia and Brunei had initiated the collaboration to evaluate each scientifically and practically discover the comprehensive solution by TDR for recent years’ various natural disasters, the deteriorating urban environmental problems, damaged resources and disruption of nature caused by environmental pollution and development, and current situation of health problems caused by poverty as well as environmental degradation of ASEAN countries. The results obtained from the research exchange with ASEAN universities, will contribute to further improvement of the level of research in this field, and also contribute to the development of problem-solving TDR in Asia. In addition, further expansion of academic and human exchanges is expected as the network of TDR exchanges centering on ASEAN countries to spread further. Through such research exchanges, it is possible to be able to train and produce the necessary human resources for promoting research on environmental science of integrated humanities and sciences, which in turn leads to an improvement in the standards of science and education and research in the developing countries and it will also increase the possibility for young researchers and scientists in performing the independent research at their home countries in future.
At this moment, TDR network under the name of TRPNEP (ASEAN – Japan Network for Transdisciplinary Research and Practice for Reducing Environmental Problem) is being developed steadily by collaboration between researchers and stakeholders from Japan and seven ASEAN countries: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam based on the problem-solving research developed by integration of humanities and sciences, and “cooperative planning of research plan”, “cooperative production of research outcomes” and “cooperative delivery” in various kinds of science and engineering fields such as global environmental science, applied geology, functional foods, etc. This network aimed to propose and perform the comprehensive solution of environmental problems of ASEAN. Again, in the process of considering these solutions, "back casting scenario" in "Scenario thinking" recently proposed by Saijo (2015) would be applied.
The purpose of holding TRPNEP seminars is to share, discuss, exhibit and exchange experience and expertise, innovation and outcomes of transdisciplinary research and practice among TRPNEP members and stakeholders on the following topics: 1) Prevention and Reduction of Natural Disasters, 2) Improvement on Urban Environmental Problems, 3) Environmental Preservation and Sustainable Development, and 4) National Security for Food and Health.
Our very first TRPNEP2018 Bandung Seminar – the 1st ASEAN - Japan Meeting Point of Collaboration by Stakeholders and Researchers for Reducing Environmental Problems in ASEAN Countries was held last year at Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Bandung, Indonesia on December 8 ~ 9, 2018. one of the outcomes of our TDR network and it aims to create cooperation between stakeholders and researchers of Japan and ASEAN countries to make the better outcomes for the reduction of environmental problems.
It is a great opportunity for us to hold our 2nd TRPNEP Nay Pyi Taw Seminar in Myanmar as it is opening a new chapter for all of us as we all can meet with Myanmar stakeholders and researchers and share, discuss, exhibit and exchange experience and expertise with them.
On the behalf of our TRPNEP network and its members, I would like to thank Your Excellency Mr. Ohmn Win, Minister of Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation (MONREC), senior officials of MONREC, and Director General Mr. Hla Maung Thein and officers of Environmental Conservation Department (ECD) - MONREC for their enormous support and contribution for this seminar. Also, I would like to thank senior officials and representatives of Ministry of Health and Sports (MOHS) and other Myanmar Ministries, stakeholders, researchers, and scientists, students from governmental organization, NGOs, universities, and companies as well as researchers and scientists from Japan and ASEAN universities for their participation, sharing and discussing their concerns, experience and expertise, and displaying tremendous research and innovation for solving the environmental problems in this second seminar. All would remain as the priceless contributions for the societies and new generations.
Prof. Masayuki Sakakibara
Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN) and Ehime University
Taisho University/ IUCN Japan Liaison Office
Abstract: IUCN started to work on the issue of Disaster Risk Reduction since 2004 when the Western Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami occurred. After this tragic event, there were many observations reported that impacts of tsunami were significantly reduced in areas where natural defense such as mangrove forests or sand dunes existed, which brought a growing attention for the new concept called Ecosystem-based Disaster Risk Reduction (Eco-DRR) in the past few years.
More recently, in order to embrace similar ecosystem-based approaches such as Eco-DRR, EbA (Ecosystem-based Adaptation), Green Infrastructure, IUCN coined the concept called Nature-based Solutions which is defined as “actions to protect, sustainably manage, and restore natural or modified ecosystems, that address societal challenges effectively and adaptively, simultaneously providing human well-being and biodiversity benefits”. IUCN is now developing a set of standards for NbS which will be discussed at the IUCN World Conservation Congress in France next year.
In Japan, there is also a growing interest on Eco-DRR and ecosystem-based approaches in general since the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. Ministry of the Environment of Japan developed a guidelines for Eco-DRR for local governments. Recently, there are also several research projects started in the field of Eco-DRR and EbA. One of such examples that I am involved in is a research project titled “Research and Social Implementation of Eco-DRR as Climate Change Adaptation in Shrinking Society” managed by Research Institute of Humanity and Nature (RHIN) Kyoto. This 2.5 million USD project attracted more than 100 scientists in Japan and is now trying to develop a methodology to evaluate multi-functionality of Eco-DRR as well as supporting to implement Eco-DRR activities through trans-disciplinary approach.
Keywords: Eco-DRR; Nature-based Solutions; ecosystem-based.
Koji Sassa 1
1 Science cluster, Kochi University
Abstract: Tropical cyclones and the other meso scale convective systems cause land slide, flash flood, lightning and wind hazard. Recent numerical simulations can forecast synoptic situation accurately, but cannot predict the locations of convective systems and their generation time precisely. Therefore, we need the nowcast system using weather radar. Observation period of volume scan by ordinary operational radars is about 5 minutes. Such period is not enough for the observations of rapidly developing severe storms, lightning from thunderstorms, tornadoes and so on. In the present study, we introduce the compact X-band radar network to observe such severe storms. Our radar network is composed of 6 compact polarimetric radars. Though the observation range of each radar is relatively small, each radar is low in cost and we can easily construct a multi-radar network. We made observation at only 5 elevation angles, and then, realize quick observation every one minute. Moreover, the radar network can complement rain attenuation of each radar. We also can get wind fields with dual Doppler analysis. Our radar network captured clearly the development and decay processes of organized convective systems called as ‘Senjyo Kousuitai’ and parent clouds of tornadoes. We can use specific differential phase, Kdp, for quantitative precipitation estimation. Then, we can estimate rainfall intensity accurately. Especially, heavy rainfall due to relatively shallow cumulonimbi which develop in very moist environment can be observed accurately. Such radar network will be good solution for mitigation of weather disaster.
Keywords: Radar network; severe storm; heavy rain; wind hazard.
Hideaki Yasuhara1 1*
1 Ehime University, Japan
Abstract: Road infrastructure development is crucial for a country’s socioeconomic development. Expansive soils that cover more than 10% of the surface area of Ethiopia have been a major constraint in road network development. These soils pose a significant hazard to the foundations of road infrastructure. Conventionally, costly measures have been taken to resolve this, such as replacement of expansive soils with better quality ones. To overcome the shortage of good quality soils and their high transportation cost, soil additives have been introduced as an alternative method of improving soil quality. However, due to limited research on their effectiveness, usage of soil additives has not been efficiently adopted. The purpose of our project (SATREPS program funded by JST and JICA, PI: Prof. Makoto Kimura, Kyoto University, https://mngd.africa.kyoto-u.ac.jp/en/) is to develop a system of maintaining unpaved roads using labor-intensive technology and locally available materials. This system will be effective in reducing road disasters in areas of rural Ethiopia that have expansive soils. To achieve our overall goal, the project will develop plant-derived soil additives and standardize the technology for effective application to national and local road infrastructure development. Additionally, by adopting local resource-based approach that effectively utilizes local materials and unskilled labor, the project aims to improve rural accessibility, thereby creating rural employment for women and youths by hiring them for the construction and maintenance work of rural road networks. The project outline will be presented in the seminar.
Keywords: Ethiopia; Expansive soils; Plant-derived soil additives; Soil improvement.
Hirotoshi Tamura 1*and Lina Yonekura 1
1 Graduate School of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Japan
Abstract: Japan is going to aging society year by year. Elderly people who are older than 65 years are rapidly increasing. Medical cost for caring elderly people is expected to be swelling in terms of lifestyle disease. The growth of medical expenses in Japan may shrink the economic power. Japanese government promotes to find physiologically important substances in foods for protecting from and suppressing life-style disease. Foods with Functional claims, therefore, had been delighted and promoted as the replacement of medicines. So, researchers in food companies and academic researchers are looking for new substances for preventing from some disease. So far, our laboratory focused on anti-cancer promotion, anti-diabetes anti-allergic, anti-oxidant activities and then found some chemicals that may have good effects on preventing lifestyle disease (Table). As shown in Table, chemicals such as flavonoids and secoiridoid in onion, colon mint, olive had fairly good antiallergic activity. Sesquiterpenes, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes from yacon leaves, Litsea cubeba fruit and coriander leaves were chemopreventive for cancer and cancer promotion cell lines. Terpenes and flavonoids in hop, shiso leaves (Perilla, Labiata family), showed antiobesity. I believe those food materials have higher potential for decreasing and preventing lifestyle disease.
Keywords: Sesquiterpene lactones; flavonoids; metabolites; life-style disease; anti-cancer; antiallergic; antiobesity.
Mirzam Abdurrachman 1*, Sri Widiyantoro2, Idham Andri Kurniawan1, NugrahaKartadinata3, Michael Cassidy4, Sebastian Watt5, Samantha L Engwell6, Muhammad E M Nurshal7, Amber Madden-Nadeau4
1 Petrology, Volcanology and Geochemistry Research Group, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
2 Global Geophysics Research Group, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
3 Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Geological Agency, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Bandung 40122, Indonesia
4 Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3AN, United Kingdom
5 School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2 TT, United Kingdom
6 British Geological Survey, The Lyell Centre, Research Avenue South, Edinburgh, EH14 4AP, United Kingdom
7 Geodynamics Research Group, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
* Corresponding Author: Mirzam Abdurrachman
Abstract: Volcanically generated tsunamis may involve poorly-predictable and complex combinations of explosive and also mass transport processes. A southwest sector collapse of Anak Krakatau Volcano, Indonesia on 22nd December 2018 generated a damaging volcanogenic tsunami on surrounding coastline. This event was the largest volcanic collapse triggering tsunami since that at Harimkotan (Kurile Islands) in 1933. Although this event provides important information to advance our understanding of collapse processes and associated hazards, our understanding of the causes of the collapse are limited and present a major challenge for mitigating volcanogenic tsunami hazard. For this reason, we investigate the relationship between eruption behavior of Anak Krakatau and sector collapse using combination of whole-rock geochemical data and seismic tomography. Geochemical data in agreement with Vp/Vs ratio from tomography, indicating two different magmatic sources, which are partial melting of mantle wedge in subduction system and mantle upwelling through slab window of subducted Indo-Australian slab to the north. The presence of two magmatic sources at the junction of oblique (Sumatra) to perpendicular (Java) subduction system are responsible to the rapid growth rate and southwest sector collapse of Anak Krakatau as seen at surrounding islands (i.g. Panaitan, Sangiang, Sebesi, Sebuku). Accurate reconstruction of volcanogenic tsunamis such as those at Anak Krakatau can help improve our understanding of source mechanisms and precursory signals, and is important both for monitoring and mitigation for high population such as Sunda Strait area.
Keywords: Geochemistry; Seismic Tomography; Anak Krakatau, Volcanogenic Tsunami; Sector Collapse.
Sandi April Maung 1, Khaing Zar Win 2, Sanda Lynn 3
Abstract: Water is one of the most crucial things on earth. There can be generally divided into four types of water: surface water, groundwater, wastewater, and stormwater. Many uses of water include agricultural, industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities. Virtually all of these human uses require freshwater. However, groundwater in Technological University (Hmawbi) can be found as the contamination even visual checking such as color and turbidity. Some of the students are suffering the skin allergic because of this contaminated water. So, the water from students’ hostel ( kumudra) was taken in September,2019 and twenty-three contaminants (pH, color, turbidity, Conductivity, Total Hardness, calcium hardness, Magnesium Hardness , Total Alkalinity , Phenolphthalein Alkalinity , Carbonate (CaCO3), Carbonate (CaCO3), Bicarbonate, Iron, Chloride, Sodium chloride, Sulphate, Total Solids, Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solids, Manganese, Phosphate, Phenolphthalein Acidity, Methyl Orange Acidity and Salinity) in water are tested and treated by using traditional method with different removal media which are available in home easily because Myanmar is one of the developing countries in the world. The filter media are gravel, coarse sand, fine sand, burnt paddy husk, charcoal, coconut fiber and laterite. The treated water was compared with the WHO (World Health Organization), Myanmar National Drinking Water Quality Standard, Thailand Standard and India Standard Specification for drinking water IS:10500. In the first time of passing water in the filter, it was seen that colour reached from 300 TTU to 60 TTU while turbidity level was from 2200 NTU to 82 NTU. And magnesium Hardness reduced from 12 to 10mg/l. From the results, treatment plant should be redesigned to remove the above contaminants. The study can get benefit for not only the student health but also the important role of water treatment project for our country, Myanmar.
Keywords: Groundwater: traditional method: removal media: contaminants.
Rathborey Chan 1, Chart Chiemchaisri1*, Wilai Chiemchaisri1
1 Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University.
* Corresponding Author: Chart Chiemchaisri
Abstract: The application of membrane bioreactor to the treatment of aquaculture wastewater containing residual could improve the treated water qualities to meet the effluent standard or criteria for reuse purposes. An operation of MBR at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 hours and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations of 4-5 g/L was determined as appropriate condition. This single-stage aerobic MBR provided high treatment efficiencies in terms of organic (>95%), ammonia (>90%) and organic nitrogen (>85%), and major residual antibiotics, i.e. 80-100% of amoxicillin (AMX), sulfadiazine (SDZ), and trimethoprim (TMP) containing in aquaculture wastewater. AMX was 100% removed in the MBR via biodegradation while TMP was removed by biodegradation and partial adsorption. Meanwhile, SDZ was recalcitrant to biodegradation and its removal took place through adsorption onto sludge particles and retained in the MBR by microfiltration membrane (0.4 µm pore size).
Keywords: Adsorption; antibiotics; aquaculture wastewater; biodegradation; membrane bioreactor.
Zaw Myo Htet 1, Clara, Horn, Jona, Linh, Nicholas, Olivia, Ramon Nikko, Randa, Wynona
University of Mandalay
*Corresponding Author: Zaw Myo Htet
Abstract: To participate completely in eMpowering Youths across ASEAN program organized by ASEAN Foundation and Maybank Foundation, the 10 young people from ASEAN countries went through capacity-building workshops and project design sessions with the goal to raise awareness of food waste management and organic farming through activities. The project was accomplished for two weeks (17 February- 2 March 2019) in Gombak, Selangor in Malaysia. The ASEAN team together with EcoKnights came up with a practicable solution to solve the food waste problem by composting with black soldier fly. Known scientifically as Hermetia illucens, the larvae are able to turn food waste into compost, which is used as fertilizer for gardening and farming. A variety of activities in the Frangipani Organic Farm, such as peanut and paddy planting and paddy milling was learned. On top of regular food waste collection, community engagement was also a major plan, having successfully conducted surveys in a night market, collaborated closely with local volunteers and hosted two educational workshops in local schools. The activities rounded off with an Open Day on 2nd March 2019. The project left a largely positive impact on changing attitudes about integrated organic farming and empowering communities to get involved in the practice.
Keywords: Food waste; composting; black soldier fly; organic farming; empowering; ASEAN.
Naoki Kinoshita 1*and Hideaki Yasuhara 1
1 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ehime University, Japan
*Corresponding Author: Naoki Kinoshita
Abstract: Industrial waste generated in the domestic paper industry in Japan was 5.1 million tons per year in 2015, and after reduction and recycling, 152 thousand tons of the waste was consequently disposed. Then, organic sludge (mainly paper sludge), which occupies two-thirds of the industrial waste generated in the paper industry, is incinerated for the purpose of volume reduction and thermal recycling, and then it becomes paper sludge ash (PSA). PSA is recycled as aggregate, roadbed material in the civil engineering field and cement raw material, but it is necessary to further expand the application and reduce the final disposal amount for prevention and reduction of natural disasters, environmental preservation and sustainable development.
From the above background, in this research, the strength characteristics, the durability performance and the environmental impact of low carbon concrete produced by reducing cement usage to 45% by using PSA as admixture in addition to some industrial by-products such as fly ash and blast furnace slag fine powder, were investigated. Experimental results show that the low carbon concrete produced in this research has long term strength development, and that PSA does not contribute to long term strength. Moreover, the clay mineral contained in the PSA has an effect of reducing drying shrinkage by water retention and expansion. With respect to durability performance, neutralization is promoted by decreasing the total cement amount, while salt tolerance resistance is improved. Frost damage resistance tends to decrease. The elution amount of toxic substances is less than the soil environmental standard value.
Keywords: Low Carbon Concrete; Paper Sludge Ash; Industrial By-Products; Strength; Durability.
Kenji Wada 1*, Shinichiro Okazaki1, Hiroshi Kanasaki3, Ichiro Ishimaru2
1 Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Japan
2 Faculty of Engineering and Design, Kagawa University, Japan
3 NISSIN KIKAI Co.Ltd., Japan
*Corresponding Author: Kenji Wada
Abstract: Slowing down of the ageing of buildings and structural units is a very important problem not only in Japan but also in other countries. Recently, NIR spectroscopy has been utilized for the nondestructive measurement of the chloride ion concentration by detecting a peak due to Friedel’s salt on a salt-damaged concrete surface . The application of an imaging system would be more useful for the fast detection of the signs of the ageing deterioration . In the present study, the chlorine ion distribution on the concrete surface was measured by novel Fourier-transformed Near-infrared (NIR) imaging spectroscopic system proposed by Prof. Ishimaru, which is very compact and has strong robustness for mechanical vibrations . Therefore, it is suitable for on-site measurements.
In the present study, the measurements of chloride ion concentration on a concrete surface are demonstrated . For example, the detection of salt-damaged areas at the surface of the hollow bridge's girders used for 51 year at the coastal area was achieved by the outdoor remote measurements as shown in Figure 1. The system visualized the peak intensity due to the Friedel's salt. While the chloride ion concentration of almost the whole area of girder 1 surface (not severely salt-damaged) was low, yellow-to red spots observed in the mapping of the girder 2 surface (severely salt-damaged) indicates the presence of highly chlorinated spots.
Figure 1.(a) A photograph of girders and the outputs of two-dimensional imaging of the (b) girder 1 and (c) girder 2.
 Kanada, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Uomoto, K., Concrete Engineering 2005, 43, 37.
 Toda, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Kurata, T., IHI Technical Report 2012, 52, 53.
 For example, Suzuki, Y.; Sato, S.; Fujiwara, M.; Kawashima, K.; Suzuki, S.; Abeygunawardhana, P.; Wada, K.; Nishiyama, A.; Ishimaru, I., Appl. Opt. 2015, 54, 6254.
 Wada, K.; Okazaki, S.; Ishimaru, I., J. Image. Soc. Jpn. 2019, in press.
Keywords: Near infrared Fourier transformed imaging spectroscopy; chloride ion; concrete deterioration; Friedel's salt.
Nguyen Phuc Cam Tu 1, Nguyen Ngoc Ha2, Tran Anh Duc3
1 Faculty of Fisheries, Nong Lam University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
2 Research Institute for Biotechnology and Environment, Nong Lam University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
3 Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
* Corresponding Author: Nguyen Phuc Cam Tu
Abstract: Aquaponics is a value-added system in which a traditional agriculture is hydroponically produced in recirculating aquaculture system. The study aimed to examine the growth of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and muskmelon (Cucumis melo) in aquaponics system without the addition of artificial nutrient. The trial was carried out in a completely randomized design, including one control (fish in tank, no hydroponic component, water exchange of 40% per day) and two treatments with different plant densities (fish in tank with 8 and 12 plants in hydroponic components (T8 and T12)) with three replications. Tilapias (averaged 101 g) were stocked at 80 fish.m-3 . Compared to control treatment, levels of all water quality parameters analyzed in two tilapia - melon integrated systems were lower and within suitable levels for fish growth. The results showed that tilapia final weight reached 327.8 ± 2.0 g of T12, followed by T8 and control treatment of 320.5 ± 7.4 and 216.6 ± 7.9 g after 60 days of experiment. Tilapia best performance in terms of growth and production for weight gain, specific growth rate, survival rate and food conversion rate were found at T12 of 3.78 ± 0.04 g/day, 1.96 ± 0.01 %/day, 100 ± 0 % and 1.57 ± 0.07, respectively. Moreover, muskmelon harvests of T8 and T12 showed no significant difference, with the final weight of 1.79 ± 0.06 and 1.81 ± 0,04 kg and Brix reading of 9. From these results, it is possible to conclude the integration of tilapia fish farming and muskmelon production is potentially a promising aquaponics system for sustainable fish and horticulture plant production.
Keywords: Aquaponics; grwoth rate, muskmelon (Cucumis melo); plant densities; tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).
Masayuki Sakakibara 1, 2, Hendra Prasetica3, and Nurfitri Abdul Gafur2
1 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto 603-8047, Japan
2 Ehime University, Ehime 790-8577, Japan
3 Universitas Lampung, Lampung 35141, Indonesia
* Corresponding Author: Masayuki Sakakibara
Abstract: Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that seriously threatens extremely poisonous to the human body. Mercury pollution is one of the most serious environmental issues and requires global action for its resolution. Recent investigations by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) have highlighted the enormity of Hg pollution in developing countries and the associated harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. One of the main causes of Hg pollution is artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), in which Hg is used as the traditional method of amalgamation to extract gold from the ore rock and emit ca. 40 % of global anthropogenic Hg into the atmosphere. This method is quicker, simpler, and more cost-effective than alternative methods, and is widely used in many ASGM communities. According to data from the UNEP, ASGM produces 15-20 % of global gold production. Almost 15 million people, including about 3 million women and children, participate in ASGM activities in more than 70 countries. This study defines and uses the new term “Bio-Eco-Geo-Medi-Socio (BEGMES) -science” which is an emerging interdisciplinary scientific investigating on the relationship between geoscience and ecoscience factors and their effects on the health of human being and animals under a socio-economic issue. This study also highlights the impact of geoscience and ecoscience aspects on the pollution to the environment and also humans in the ASGM areas in Indonesia.
Keywords: Bio-Eco-Geo-Medi-Socio-Science (BEGMES); artisanal and small-scale gold mining; heavy metals; mercury; aesenic; lead.
Sri Manovita Pateda 1, 2, 3*, Masayuki Sakakibara1, 4, 5, and Koichiro Sera6
1 Graduate School of Science & Engineering, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama City, Ehime Prefecture 790-8577, Japan;
2 Public Health Department, Faculty of Sport and Health, State University of Gorontalo, Jenderal Sudirman Street 6, Gorontalo City, Gorontalo Province 96100, Indonesia;
3 Medical Department, Faculty of Sport and Health, State University of Gorontalo, Jenderal Sudirman Street 6, Gorontalo City, Gorontalo Province 96100, Indonesia.
4 Faculty of Collaborative Regional Innovation, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama City, Ehime Prefecture 790-8577, Japan.
5 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603- 8047, Japan.
6 Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, 348-58 Tomegamori, Takizawa, Iwate 020- 0173, Japan.
* Corresponding Author: Sri Manovita Pateda
Abstract: Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) process mostly do by human and some process center are located in populated areas. This matter instead strengthens the negative effects of mining activities, especially on human health, both directly and indirectly. This study, conducted in 5 mining areas and 2 control areas in Gorontalo Province. Analysis of soil, dust, nose hair and scalp hair used Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), and some scalp hair used Inductively Coupled PlasmaMass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Mercury concentration in soil samples from ASGM area shows the highest level, generally, and normal in the control area. Dust sample concentration shows high concentration even in the control area. The correlation between mercury concentration in the scalp and nose hair signify the positive relation (R2 =0.709). Health status revealed exiguous differences. The tremor symptoms appear 61%, 57% and 15% as well the ataxia symptoms shows 46%, 63%, and 49% on miner, non-miner and control respondents, respectively. The significant phenomena emergent in correlation between mercury concentration and Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR). Since there is no clear correlation between clinical symptoms of intoxication and the level of mercury in the body, BMR shows the limits of the human body to tolerate the effects of mercury in the body. Advance analysis needs to find out the processes in cell metabolism.
Keywords: Geomedical-science; Mercury; basal metabolic rate; ASGM; Gorontalo.
Hnin Ei Khin
Pollution Control Division, Environmental Conservation Department, Mandalay
Corresponding Author: Hnin Ei Khin
Abstract: Constructed wetlands are engineered and managed wetland systems that are increasingly receiving worldwide attention for wastewater treatment and reclamation. Constructed wetlands have been proved to be simple, ecologically friendly and cost-effective for wastewater treatment. They also provide other landscape and social benefits such as wildlife habitat, research laboratories, and recreational uses. Compared to conventional treatment plants, constructed wetlands are cost-effective and easily operated and maintained, and they have a strong potential for application in a small community like Panda Textile Factory, a plant in Paleik that has available land but technology and budget constraints. This study introduces a constructed wetland system to Textile Sector for secondary and tertiary treatment of their wastewater and to make the effluent water suitable for irrigation. By studying the existing wastewater quality, local climate, site condition, water policies and future demands, this study presents a model of constructed wetland for Textile Sector and evaluates the practicality of this model in wastewater treatment. The study results show that a constructed wetland coupled with the existing sedimentation ponds provides at least 95% removal of pollutants in the wastewater treatment process and that the effluent water qualifies for both agriculture and landscape irrigation. Future considerations in choosing constructed wetlands as a wastewater treatment system in other communities with needs similar to those of Textile Sector are highlighted in the study.
Keywords: Constructed wetlands; wastewater treatment system; wastewater treatment system for textile sector; low-cost wastewater treatment system; heavy Metals; wildlife habitat; wastewater effluent reuse; sustainability.
Idham Andri Kurniawan 1, Mirzam Abdurrachman1, Nurcahyo Indro Basuki1, Masayuki Sakakibara2, Irwan Meilano3, Adzkia Noerma Arifa1, Wildan Nur Hamzah1
1 Department of Geology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
2 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan
3 Department of Geodetic, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
* Corresponding Author: Idham Andri Kurniawan
Abstract: Artisanal Small Gold Mining (ASGM) is one of the sources of mercury pollution in Indonesia. The village of Bunikasih, located 50 km from Bandung, capital city of West Java, is one of the ASGM locations that has developed since 1993. Inhabitants of Bunikasih village work as miners, and tea and vegetable plantations. Here are the environmental studies for identified the pollution of mercury in the village especially on the Cibaliung River. Soil, water and tea leaves samples were collected depend on the distance. The results show that soil is highest contamination part compare to the water and tea leaves. The mercury content of the soil decreases with the increasing distance from the source. Some samples of water contain mercury, but tea leaves are not detected of mercury. Further social economical research is needed to help inhabitant fulfill their daily needs.
Keywords: ASGM; mercury; soil; water; tea leaves.
Kou Ikejima 1
1 Faculty of Agriculture and Marine Science, Kochi University.
* Corresponding Author: Kou Ikejima
Abstract: In recent years, it has been revealed that plastic pollution spreads worldwide, from coasts to open ocean, sea surface water to deep sea bottom, and from large aquatic animals (e.g. cetaceans, birds, fishes) to small zooplanktons. In particular, there is growing concern that microplastic (MP: plastics < 5mm in size) is ingested by plankton and small fish, and enter food webs, affecting ecosystem scale and potentially human health. Countermeasures against plastic pollution are in urgent needs to achieve SDGs Goal 14.1 “By 2025…prevent and significantly reduce all types of marine pollution”.
Plastics are used in a variety of applications, and global production currently exceeds 400 million tons per year, and 40% of them are single-use and disposable plastics. There are also many items that are unintentionally discharged with use, such as chemical fibers that fall off during washing and car tiregenerated particles. Plastic discharge comes from mainly land-based, but also sea-based sources. Most plastics remain in the environment as small particles without being mineralized, although they are fragmented into smaller pieces (i.e. MP, and nanoplastic: <0.1μm) by physical and chemical effects such as ultraviolet rays, heat, and friction.
With growling number of studies in the last decade, our knowledge on MP pollution has been improved, but only just beginning to be understand. For example, there is geographical/regional bias in the field observation and lack of standardized methods of monitoring, which restricts validation of model predictions, elucidating the mechanism of MP generation and transportation, identifying area of higher risk of pollution, etc. For rapid accumulation of information, monitoring by both professional and citizen scientists are recommended, and development of standardized monitoring methods for high accuracy/precision for professional, and easier/low-cost for citizen scientists, along with integration of both outcomes (e.g. conversion formula) will be needed.
Keywords: Microplastics; ocean; monitoring; citizen science.
Khin Ohnmar Htwe 1, Saw Pyone Naing2
Myanmar Environmental Innovation Foundation, MEIF
* Corresponding Author: Khin Ohnmar Htwe
Abstract: Ayeyarwaddy River is a main river of Myanmar. It is about 1,350 miles (2,170 km) long and total drainage area is about 158,700 square miles (411,000 square km). The study area, Thanbo Island situated in Mandalay Region. It is located on the western bank of Ayeyarwaddy River opposite to Mandalay City on the eastern bank. Thanbo island is channel island. It has two villages. There are Thanbo Kyun Village (older alluvial island or Permanent Island) and Tangarsu Village (younger alluvial island or Temporary island). Both villages located on Thanbo Island depend on Ayeyarwaddy River. However, their dependencies are quite different. For Thanbo Kyun Village, villagers depend on agriculture and they need fertile soil from the river and they want flood during the rainy season. For Tagarsu Village, villagers depend on fishing and collecting logs from the river channel. They afraid of flood because their houses are temporary and these houses are necessary to move during flood. However, Ayeyarwaddy River gradually reduces the water amount year by year. For this, temporary village will become a permanent site within a few years. Fertile soils deposited from the flood will also decrease for the cultivators in the permanent village. The transformations in their livelihood depend on the changes in Ayeyarwaddy River. All villagers have to learn and promote awareness of environmental preservation and sustainable development. Based on the past experiences and knowledge, the residents realize how to adapt the changing physical environment for the sustainable development incorporating livelihood changes and adaptation.
Keywords: Environmental change; adaptation; flood; livelihood; permanent; temporary.
Cho Zin Myint 1, Yan Lin Aung2
1 Myanmar Engineering Council
* Corresponding Author: Cho Zin Myint
Abstract: Since the water quality monitoring (WQM) is critical, a real-time continuous in-situ monitoring system for water quality detection has been increasingly popular among the researchers in recent years. Despite many studies and researches and the tremendous capabilities of the technology, environmental monitoring application of WSN is still limited as signal types and the sampling rate of sensors are restricted by the type of devices. One of the current constraints of IoT is energy efficiency since the enormous numbers of sensors are deployed in IoT. In the system, the sensor node is designed for monitoring the data of water parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), oxidationreduction potential (ORP), conductivity (salinity), turbidity, temperature and dissolved ions (Fluoride (Fluoride (F -), Calcium (Ca2+), Nitrate (NO3 -), Chloride (Cl -), Iodide (I -), Cupric (Cu 2+), Bromide (Br-), Silver (Ag+), Fluoroborate (BF4-), Ammonia (NH4), Lithium (Li+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Nitrite (NO2-), Perchlorate (ClO4), Potassium (K+), Sodium (Na+), and water level. The designed system comprises sensors, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), Zigbee wireless communication unit and personal computer (PC). The FPGA is used as the central component of the WQM system because of its unique reconfigurable real-time performance and synchronicity, and a very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL) and C++ are programmed in it using Qsys tool and Quartus II software. The collected water data is sent to the FPGA board. The computed data is then transmitted to the control station through the ZigBee wireless communication module. Thus, the design of the WQM application collected the real-time data in parallel with the fast rate from various sensor nodes. The operation of the reconfigurable WQM system based on WSN is examined through experiments and computer simulations. The model of WQM technology with the benefits of power efficiency, ecofriendly and user-friendly based on WSN in IoT technology is designed.
Keywords: WQM; WSN; IoT; water quality; data.
Yu Wai Yan Thein Tan
1 E Guard Environmental Services
Abstract: The Inle lake, being image of Myanmar’s heart, tradition, culture, tourist attraction, historical palace and home to many main species of flora and fauna, is a livelihood center for the people living in and around the lake. The purpose of this study is to assess the current environmental pollution of in and around the Inle Lake for human health/ well- being and reduced vulnerability of communities with a view to sustainable environmental management. Specifically (1)To evaluate the current water and sanitation development in Inle lake (2) To identify specific combined human health/ well-being and biodiversity concerns and issues relevant to the environmental pollution in Inle Lake. (3) To develop the recommendation and guidelines for wetland management strategy towards the local people in line with environmental awareness. The study was done in Inle lake catchment area (1) Current environmental pollution problems of the lake ecosystem (2) effects of imbalanced biodiversity on human well-being, which concurrently related to the environmental pollution (3) the problems and providing mitigation measures for the identified problems mainly focus on water and. Many environmental issues contribution to the degradation of environmental services of the study areas were identified to be considered in the future Environmental Management Strategies, Recommendations were made for possible future research and environmental pollution implications for human well-being and biodiversity.
Keywords: Inle lake; environmental pollution.
Dr. Nyein Zin Latt1
1 Lecturer, Myanmar Maritime University
* Corresponding Author: Dr. Nyein Zin Latt
Abstract: One-third of Myanmar’s total perimeter forms an uninterrupted coastline along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. We could get the advantage of hydropower enormously as a renewable energy source if we can harness the tidal power effectively. Yet, any kind of tidal power generation has not been used in Myanmar. Myanmar Maritime University has initiated its research on tidal energy since 2012 focusing to develop the effective turbine design with good efficiency. The aim of the research is to fulfill the growing demand of the country’s electricity. The research includes the hydrographic surveys and measuring the flow velocities of tide at the proposed sites as well as physical modelling of various turbine designs.
Keywords: Tidal power; renewable energy.
Shaifulazuar Rozali 1, Zakuan Zabri1
1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
* Corresponding Author: Shaifulazuar Rozali
Abstract: This research focus on the development of bulk materials as the solar selective absorber. In this research work, Aluminium-based composites reinforced with carbon nanofillers i.e. multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) which are distributed in the matrix of Aluminum (Al) nanocomposites has been investigated to determine the optical properties ie; spectral selectivity behavior of Aluminum (Al) nanocomposites materials. The effects of both MWCNT and GNP nanofillers addition on the optical properties of the Al nanocomposites is systematically investigated. Al matrix composite were filled with different composition of nanofillers: i.e. functionalized and pristine carbon nanofillers (5 to 15 wt.%) and fabricated using powder metallurgy (PM) process. Samples morphology, optical and micro hardness properties were measured for different composition of Al–MWCNT-GNP nanocomposites. Dispersion of carbon nanofillers and spectral selectivity behavior of Al nanocomposites were enhanced with the addition of functionalized nanofillers (MWCNTCOOH-GNPCOOH). The XRD analysis confirmed the existence of functionalized and pristine MWCNT-GNP nanofiller without the presence of Al3C4. Micro Vickers hardness values of Al nanocomposites added with MWCNTCOOH-GNPCOOH were higher compared to the sample added with MWCNT-GNP/ MWCNT/ GNP. Light absorption was enhanced in UV-VIS/NIR region (from 200 nm to 2 500 nm) while reflectance was improved in the NIR-FIR region (from 3 000 nm to 14 000 nm) with the addition of MWCNTCOOH-GNPCOOH nanofillers. The highest selectivity ratio obtained was 14.60 for Al nanocomposites with the addition of 2.5 wt.% MWCNTCOOH and 2.5 wt.% GNPCOOH.
Keywords: Solar energy, solar absorber; spectral selectivity; aluminum nanocomposites.
Xiaoxu Kuang 1, Atsuki Sentoku2, Atsushi Sasaki2, Masatoshi Endo2
1 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, 603-8047, Japan
2 Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 4-3-16, 992-8510, Japan
* Corresponding Author: Xiaoxu Kuang
Abstract: This study investigated the solidification/stabilization of solid wastes containing F- ( F), [B(OH)4]- (B), AsO4 3- (As) and CrO42- (Cr) using metal salt inhibitors, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and crushed stone powder (CSP). The addition of metal salt inhibitors, such as Ca (OH)2, MgCl2 and BaCl2, reduced the elution concentrations of F, B, As and Cr by coprecipitating insoluble inorganic salts. OPC was added to produce Ca-bearing hydrates, such as portlandite, calcium silica hydrates, ettringite and so on. The elution concentrations of hazardous ions were reduced due to the coprecipitation, ion exchange and solidification effects of Ca-bearing hydrates. Furthermore, the presence of CSP, produced during the production of crushed stone from rocks, caused the decrease of elution concentrations of these hazardous ions, which results from its inhibition effect. On the other hand, the solidification/stabilization effect of OPC was considered to be improved with the addition of CSP. The elution concentrations of F, B, As and Cr were successfully reduced from their maximum elution concentration of 10 mg/L to 0.20, 0.18, 0.00 and 0.01mg/L, respectively, meeting the environmental standards values of Japan. A solidification/stabilization method for F, B, As and Cr from solid wastes has been developed successfully and would be able to promote the reuse and recycling of CSP and other solid wastes.
Keywords: Hazardous anions; solidification; crushed stone powder.
1 Cancer Chemoprevemtion Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
* Corresponding Author: Edy Meiyanto
Abstract: Cancer malignancy tends to be more complex over the time due to the metastatic phenomenon with complexity of genes expression alteration and deregulating of cellular energetic. Therefore, developing a chemopreventive agents possessing both as modulator on cancer metabolism and cancer metastasis are strategic approaches to overcome cancer malignancy. Curcumin, a compound found in Curcuma sp., and its analogues perform potential for this purpose. Curcumin showed pro-oxidant and senescence inducer on K562 leukemiccells through the interaction with several cancer metabolizing enzymes such as GST-P1, CBR1, NQO1-2, and GLO1. Another herb, galangal increased ROS level and induced senescence cells on 4T1 but not on NIH 3T3 normal firoblast cells. Brazilein, the red substance from Caecalpinia sappan, modulates cell cycle progression on some cancer cells. Brazillein, Curcumin and galangal are also performed antimetastatic activities by inhibiting cells migration and lamellipodia formation as well as decreasing MMP-9 and Rac1 expression. For application used, some Indonesian herbs or its active compounds can be formulated by nanoparticle formulation such as nanoemulsion, liposomal system, or polymer complex system. On the other way, we may develop the derivative compounds to obtain the better efficacy as anti-cancer agent with specific target. In conclusion, Asian herbs and the active compounds are potential to be developed as modulator of cancer metabolism and anti-metastatic agents. A comprehensive and collaborative researches are needed to support the development of Indonesian and Asian herbs and the active compounds as chemopreventive agents.
Keywords: Asian herbs, chemopreventive agents, cancer metabolism, metastasis.
1 International Institute of Rare Sugar Research and Education, Kagawa University, Japan.
* Corresponding Author: Masaaki Tokuda
Abstract: Rare sugars are defined by the International Society of Rare Sugars as “monosaccharides and their derivatives which are rare in nature”. To date more than 50 kinds of rare sugars have been identified and production methods of many rare sugars have been established. Research is ongoing in various fields such as food, health, and agriculture. For example, Dallulose (also called D-psicose), a C-3 epimer of D-fructose, has been found to attenuate postprandial blood glucose levels through the inhibition of digestive enzymes, glucose transporter inhibition, and stimulation of glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion. D-allulose also has anti-obesity and atherosclerotic activity. D-allose, a C-3 epimer of D-glucose, is reported to have inhibitory activity on cancer cell proliferation of many kinds of cancer cells. The anticancer mechanism is due to the induction of the expression of Thioredoxin Interacting Protein (TXNIP), a tumor suppressor gene product, by D-allose. D-allose also has anti-oxidative activity which can benefit various ischemic diseases such as myocardial infarction, and brain embolism. These functions of Dallose may be applicable to medicines. D-tagatose has been shown to have anti-caries and antiperiodontitis activity. Academia-Industry-Government collaboration on rare sugars have been accomplished since 1999 and D-allulose is the first commercialized and marketed product as a rare sugar-containing syrup in 2013. International collaboration in rare sugar research is ongoing to reduce the number of patients with life-style related diseases in the world. Our aim is to promote transdisciplinary research with various stakeholders including food and health industries, and to carry out people’s health promotion all over the world. Especially reduction of number of patients who are suffering from diabetes and obesity all over the world by D-allulose is a big goal of the rare sugar project in the next decade.
Health Functions of Rare Sugars Keywords: Rare sugars; D-allulose; D-allose; D-tagatose; NCDs; transdisciplinary collaboration.
Teera Chewonarin 1*, Chanarat Kiriya1, 2, Ranchana Yeewa1
1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand.
2 Research Administration section, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand.
* Corresponding Author: Teera Chewonarin
Abstract: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common chronic disease in aging men which could develops to prostate cancer (PCa). Potential risk factors for prostate cancer include age, family history, race, lifestyle and diet. While age and genetic risk factors are uncontrollable, dietary and behavioral risk factors are manageable. For this reason, diet and lifestyle changes could be good strategies to prevent prostate cancer in the coming decade We have firstly reported that ethanol extract of purple rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) could suppress the progression of rat BPH induced by testosterone. The extract could either suppress the expression of androgen receptor (AR) or inhibit 5α-reductase activity leading to the reduction of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). We then demonstrated that anthocynin rich fraction of purple rice extract showed more potential activity when compared to its ethanol extract. Oral administration of this fraction to BPH rats retarded prostate enlargement and improved histological changes induced by testosterone, without any effects on serum testosterone levels. A lower proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling index and the downregulated expression of AR, cyclinD1, and fatty acid synthase were clearly observed. In addition, inflammatory-related cytokines and enzymes in prostate tissues were significantly decreased. Moreover this extract and active fraction also demonstrated their mechanisms against the growth of human prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP). Taken together, these findings demonstrate the potential of purple rice for prevention of BPH and PCa in both in vitro and in vivo model. Therefor purple rice should be developed for food supplement against chronic disease of prostate and further applied in clinical investigation.
Keywords: Androgen receptor; Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Purple rice extract; Prostate cancer.
Narissara Lailerd 1*, Parichart Toejing1, Nuntawat Khat-udomkiri2, Sasithorn Sirilun2, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut2
1 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.
2 Innovation Center for Holistic Health, Nutraceuticals and Cosmeceuticals, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.
* Corresponding Author: Narissara Lailerd
Abstract: Rice husk (RH) is an agricultural waste obtained from rice milling process. Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) known as prebiotics that can enhance the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota. Several studies indicate that the composition of gut microbiota may be involved in the progression of insulin resistance in diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of XOS from RH using a diabetic rat model induced by high - fat diet feeding and streptozotocin injection. Methods: After verification of diabetic development, diabetic rats were randomly assigned to receive vehicle (DMC), XOS (DM-XOS), metformin (DMM) and combination of XOS and metformin (DMM-XOS), respectively, along with high-fat diet for 16 weeks. An additional group of rats fed with normal diet plus vehicle (NDC) and normal diet plus XOS (NDXOS) were also included. Blood chemical parameters, plasma lipopolysaccharides (LPS), gut permeability and gut microbiota were examined at the end of study. Results: Supplementation with XOS successfully decreased not only the fasting plasma glucose, insulin and leptin levels but also the plasma LPS level in DM-XOS compared to DMC group. In addition, XOS supplement significantly reversed the changed gut permeability and elevated the number of beneficial bacteria, both Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the efficacy of XOS from RH in achieving good glycemic control in diabetes by maintenance of gut microbiota and attenuation of endotoxemia. These findings reveal the benefits of this agricultural waste and also display an opportunity to add its value through the development as functional food, particularly for the diabetes.
Keywords: Anti-hyperglycemia; Xylooligosaccharides; gut microbiota; Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Takeshi Yoda 1, 2*, Kensaku Miyamoto3, Rujee Rattanasathien4, Bumnet Saengrut4, Kanlaya Chunjai4, Rujirat Pudwan4, Kawin Sirimuengmoon5, Kenji Wada6, and Masaaki Tokuda7
1 Department of Health and Sports science, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Japan
2 Department of Public Health, Kawasaki Medical School, Japan
3 Faculty of Education, Kagawa University, Japan
4 Nursing Department, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand
5 Faculty of Associated Medical Science, Chiang Mai University, Thailand
6 Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Japan
7 International Office, Kagawa University, Japan
* Corresponding Author: Takeshi Yoda
Abstract: Asian countries are going to aging society year by year. Elderly people who are older than 65 years are rapidly increasing not only Japan but also many southeast Asian countries (Figure 1). According to Fried et al., the loss of the muscle mass plays an important etiologic role in the frailty process of elderly subjects, being also a key player of its latent phase and explaining many aspects of the frailty status itself. Sarcopenia is frequently associated with poor endurance, physical inactivity, slow gait speed and decreased mobility. The agerelated muscle mass loss is also associated with an increased risk of incident disability, all-cause mortality and higher health-care costs in the older people. We measured some items related with Sarcopenia, such as hand grip, walking speed, and Skeletal muscle Mass Index (SMI) as well as age, gender, blood pressure, socio-economic status for Thai and Japanese elderlies living in Chiang Mai, Thailand. A total of 119 elderlies were participated (Thai; 72, Japanese; 47). According to the guideline of Sarcopenia diagnosis for Asian people, grip weaknesses (defined as follows: male <26kg, female <18kg) were 20 people (Thai; 22.2%, Japanese; 8.5%), low SMI (defined as follows: male <7.0kg/m2, female <5.7kg/m2 by BIA method) were 15 people (Thai; 15.3%, Japanese; 8.5%) respectively. About walking speed, nobody applied the sarcopenia criteria (<0.8 m/s). Our preliminary results suggest that Thai elderly are riskier of Sarcopenia than Japanese. Sarcopenia is a major cause of frailty for elderlies It is very important to prevent muscle weakness for elderlies. We will analyze details and clear differences between Thai and Japanese elderlies, and find the effective way to prevent sarcopenia in future.
Keywords: Frailty; Sarcopenia; Thai; Japanese; elderly.
Nurolaini Kifli 1, Siti Hanna Muharram1, Noorfaizah Md Naim1, Suwarni Diah1, Anne Cunningham1, and Mark Petalcorin1
1 PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong, BE1410 Brunei Darussalam
* Corresponding Author: Nurolaini Kifli
Abstract: Natural products especially from plants have become subject of much interest in drug discovery especially exploring new antibiotics, antifungal, anticancer, anti-diabetic, antihypertensive to name a few. UBD Botanical Research Centre (BRC) established in 2018 hopes to develop scientific information on endemic species, which may have potential for complementary health supplements or functional food products. The centre has already identified 200 species of local plants and will work together with the UBD Herbal Research Cluster groups to study on the scientific evidences of the local folklore usage of the medicinal plants. UBD Herbal Research groups have multidisciplinary team across various faculties to study on the ethno botanical researches, its phytochemistry, cell and molecular biology as well as pharmacology study. Formulation studies of the extracts and standardization of the product as well as pharmacokinetic study will also be developed in the future for herbal and/or nutraceutical products. This paper will provide an overview of the herbal researches conducted at UBD since 2013 from isolation study to in vitro antimicrobial study, anti-inflammatory study, anti-cancer study, antihypertensive and antidyslipidemic effects of the extracts on animal model using nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C.elegans). Although our groups are still at its infancy stage, we have been actively engaging stakeholders as well as industry to be involved. Challenges and future direction in herbal researches will also briefly mentioned.
Keywords: Herbal researches; Challenges; Opportunities; UBD; Brunei Darussalam.
Fazean Idris *1, Suwarni Diah1, Norhayati Kassim2, Alice Yong3, Nik AA Tuah1, Noriko Hayashi4, Tetsuo Iida4, Akram Hossain4, Masaaki Tokuda5
1 PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam
2 Health Promotion Centre, Ministry of Health, Commonwealth Drive, Brunei Darussalam
3 Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital, Ministry of Health, Bandar Seri Begawan BA1710, Brunei Darussalam
4 Research and Development, Matsutani Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., 5-3 Kita-Itami 664-8508, Japan
5 Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793, Japan
* Corresponding Author: Fazean Idris
Abstract: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Globally, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing due to lifestyle factors. The study aimed to measure the mean-dose response effects of Dallulose (rare sugar) with sucrose beverage on glucose tolerance and plasma insulin levels in healthy adults in Brunei Darussalam.
SUBJECTS/METHODS: A randomised double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 20 healthy adults aged 18 to 38 years old, over 5 visits and 2 weeks apart. During each visit, subjects were randomly provided with test products, which were consumed in varying concentrations of D-allulose (2.5g, 5.0g, 7.5g and 10.0g) with 50.0g sucrose (intervention) or 50.0g sucrose alone (control). The levels of plasma glucose and insulin were measured at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min, after consumption of the intervention or control.
RESULTS: D-allulose dose-dependently suppressed the increment of plasma glucose levels 30 min after sucrose consumption. Doses of D-allulose at 5.0g, 7.5g and 10.0g showed significantly lower plasma glucose and plasma glucose level difference levels at 30 min. Meanwhile, consumption of 10.0g of D-allulose resulted in a lower plasma insulin concentration at 30 min and the area under the curve (AUC) of plasma insulin. Plasma insulin difference levels were also significantly lowered with 5.0g of D-allulose at 60 min and with 10.0g D-allulose at both 30 and 60 min.
CONCLUSION: The minimum effective dose of D-allulose for suppressing the elevation of plasma glucose concentration is 5.0g and for plasma insulin concentration is 10.0g. The study provides evidence on the effect of D-allulose on lowering blood glucose and insulin in healthy adults.
Keywords: Rare sugar; d-allulose; blood glucose; clinical trial.
Takuya Sugahara 1,2*, Miciyo Kondo1, Momoki Ishida1, Kosuke Nishi1
1 Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566, Japan
2 Food and Health Sciences Research Center, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566, Japan
* Corresponding Author: Takuya Sugahara
Abstract: Ishiduchi dark tea is a microbial fermented tea produced by a two-step fermentation method in Ehime, Japan. "Ishizuchi" is the name of a mountain where the dark tea is produced. First fermentation of tea leaves by fungi is performed for 1 week. Following the first fermentation, tea leaves are fermented under anaerobic condition for 2 weeks. The major bacteria participate in the second fermentation step are Lactobacillus. We herein describe the anti-allergic effect of Ishizuchi dark tea. The water extract from Ishizuchi dark tea suppressed degranulation of rat basophilic cell line RBL-2H3 cells in a dosedependent manner without cytotoxicity. Ishiduchi dark tea does not contain catechins such as EGCG, a well-known anti-allergic substance contained in green tea. In addition, anti-degranulation activity of Ishiduchi dark tea was much higher than that of green tea, even though the dark tea does not contain catechins. Fractionation of the dark tea components, and anti-degranulation activity of each fraction was evaluated. As a result, theabrownins were the major bioactive substance in Ishizuchi dark tea. Moreover, HPLC analysis revealed that the average molecular weight of theabrownins in Ishizuchi dark tea was approximately 25,000. Theabrownins from Ishizuchi dark tea down-regulated phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) to suppress intracellular signaling of degranulation in basophils. As a result of in vivo experiment, oral administration of Ishizuchi dark tea obviously suppressed an allergic symptom in the Cry j1-induced pollinosis in mice. Taken together, these data indicated that Ishizuchi dark tea would be a beneficial functional food with an anti-allergic effect.
Keywords: Ishizuchi dark tea; bacterial fermented tea; anti-degranulation; anti-allergy.